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Migrating from v1 to v2

resolve.root, resolve.fallback, resolve.modulesDirectories

These options were replaced by a single option resolve.modules. See resolving for more usage.

  resolve: {
-   root: path.join(__dirname, "src")
+   modules: [
+     path.join(__dirname, "src"),
+     "node_modules"
+   ]
  }

resolve.extensions

This option no longer requires passing an empty string. This behavior was moved to resolve.enforceExtension. See resolving for more usage.

resolve.*

Several APIs were changed here. Not listed in detail as it's not commonly used. See resolving for details.

module.loaders is now module.rules

The old loader configuration was superseded by a more powerful rules system, which allows configuration of loaders and more. For compatibility reasons, the old module.loaders syntax is still valid and the old names are parsed. The new naming conventions are easier to understand and are a good reason to upgrade the configuration to using module.rules.

  module: {
-   loaders: [
+   rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/,
-       loaders: [
-         "style-loader",
-         "css-loader?modules=true"
+       use: [
+         {
+           loader: "style-loader"
+         },
+         {
+           loader: "css-loader",
+           options: {
+             modules: true
+           }
+         }
        ]
      },
      {
        test: /\.jsx$/,
        loader: "babel-loader", // Do not use "use" here
        options: {
          // ...
        }
      }
    ]
  }

Chaining loaders

Like in webpack 1, loaders can be chained to pass results from loader to loader. Using the rule.use configuration option, use can be set to an array of loaders. In webpack 1, loaders were commonly chained with !. This style is only supported using the legacy option module.loaders.

  module: {
-   loaders: [{
+   rules: [{
      test: /\.less$/,
-     loader: "style-loader!css-loader!less-loader"
+     use: [
+       "style-loader",
+       "css-loader",
+       "less-loader"
+     ]
    }]
  }

Automatic -loader module name extension removed

It is not possible anymore to omit the -loader extension when referencing loaders:

  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        use: [
-         "style",
+         "style-loader",
-         "css",
+         "css-loader",
-         "less",
+         "less-loader",
        ]
      }
    ]
  }

You can still opt-in to the old behavior with the resolveLoader.moduleExtensions configuration option, but this is not recommended.

+ resolveLoader: {
+   moduleExtensions: ["-loader"]
+ }

See #2986 for the reason behind this change.

json-loader is not required anymore

When no loader has been configured for a JSON file, webpack will automatically try to load the JSON file with the json-loader.

  module: {
    rules: [
-     {
-       test: /\.json/,
-       loader: "json-loader"
-     }
    ]
  }

We decided to do this in order to iron out environment differences between webpack, node.js and browserify.

Loaders in configuration resolve relative to context

In webpack 1, configured loaders resolve relative to the matched file. However, in webpack 2, configured loaders resolve relative to the context option.

This solves some problems with duplicate modules caused by loaders when using npm link or referencing modules outside of the context.

You may remove some hacks to work around this:

  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        // ...
-       loader: require.resolve("my-loader")
+       loader: "my-loader"
      }
    ]
  },
  resolveLoader: {
-   root: path.resolve(__dirname, "node_modules")
  }

module.preLoaders and module.postLoaders were removed:

  module: {
-   preLoaders: [
+   rules: [
      {
        test: /\.js$/,
+       enforce: "pre",
        loader: "eslint-loader"
      }
    ]
  }

UglifyJsPlugin sourceMap

The sourceMap option of the UglifyJsPlugin now defaults to false instead of true. This means that if you are using source maps for minimized code or want correct line numbers for uglifyjs warnings, you need to set sourceMap: true for UglifyJsPlugin.

  devtool: "source-map",
  plugins: [
    new UglifyJsPlugin({
+     sourceMap: true
    })
  ]

UglifyJsPlugin warnings

The compress.warnings option of the UglifyJsPlugin now defaults to false instead of true. This means that if you want to see uglifyjs warnings, you need to set compress.warnings to true.

  devtool: "source-map",
  plugins: [
    new UglifyJsPlugin({
+     compress: {
+       warnings: true
+     }
    })
  ]

UglifyJsPlugin minimize loaders

UglifyJsPlugin no longer switches loaders into minimize mode. The minimize: true setting needs to be passed via loader options in the long-term. See loader documentation for relevant options.

The minimize mode for loaders will be removed in webpack 3 or later.

To keep compatibility with old loaders, loaders can be switched to minimize mode via plugin:

  plugins: [
+   new webpack.LoaderOptionsPlugin({
+     minimize: true
+   })
  ]

DedupePlugin has been removed

webpack.optimize.DedupePlugin isn't needed anymore. Remove it from your configuration.

BannerPlugin - breaking change

BannerPlugin no longer accepts two parameters, but a single options object.

  plugins: [
-    new webpack.BannerPlugin('Banner', {raw: true, entryOnly: true});
+    new webpack.BannerPlugin({banner: 'Banner', raw: true, entryOnly: true});
  ]

OccurrenceOrderPlugin is now on by default

The OccurrenceOrderPlugin is now enabled by default and has been renamed (OccurenceOrderPlugin in webpack 1). Thus make sure to remove the plugin from your configuration:

  plugins: [
    // webpack 1
-   new webpack.optimize.OccurenceOrderPlugin()
    // webpack 2
-   new webpack.optimize.OccurrenceOrderPlugin()
  ]

ExtractTextWebpackPlugin - breaking change

ExtractTextPlugin requires version 2 to work with webpack 2.

npm install --save-dev extract-text-webpack-plugin

The configuration changes for this plugin are mainly syntactical.

ExtractTextPlugin.extract

module: {
  rules: [
    {
      test: /.css$/,
-      loader: ExtractTextPlugin.extract("style-loader", "css-loader", { publicPath: "/dist" })
+      use: ExtractTextPlugin.extract({
+        fallback: "style-loader",
+        use: "css-loader",
+        publicPath: "/dist"
+      })
    }
  ]
}

new ExtractTextPlugin({options})

plugins: [
-  new ExtractTextPlugin("bundle.css", { allChunks: true, disable: false })
+  new ExtractTextPlugin({
+    filename: "bundle.css",
+    disable: false,
+    allChunks: true
+  })
]

Full dynamic requires now fail by default

A dependency with only an expression (i. e. require(expr)) will now create an empty context instead of the context of the complete directory.

Code like this should be refactored as it won't work with ES2015 modules. If this is not possible you can use the ContextReplacementPlugin to hint the compiler towards the correct resolving.

Link to an article about dynamic dependencies.

Using custom arguments in CLI and configuration

If you abused the CLI to pass custom arguments to the configuration like so:

webpack --custom-stuff

// webpack.config.js
var customStuff = process.argv.indexOf("--custom-stuff") >= 0;
/* ... */
module.exports = config;

You may notice that this is no longer allowed. The CLI is more strict now.

Instead there is an interface for passing arguments to the configuration. This should be used instead. Future tools may rely on this.

webpack --env.customStuff

module.exports = function(env) {
  var customStuff = env.customStuff;
  /* ... */
  return config;
};

See CLI.

require.ensure and AMD require are asynchronous

These functions are now always asynchronous instead of calling their callback synchronously if the chunk is already loaded.

require.ensure now depends upon native Promises. If using require.ensure in an environment that lacks them then you will need a polyfill.

Loader configuration is through options

You can no longer configure a loader with a custom property in the webpack.config.js. It must be done through the options. The following configuration with the ts property is no longer valid with webpack 2:

module.exports = {
  ...
  module: {
    rules: [{
      test: /\.tsx?$/,
      loader: 'ts-loader'
    }]
  },
  // does not work with webpack 2
  ts: { transpileOnly: false }
}

What are options?

Good question. Well, strictly speaking it's 2 possible things; both ways to configure a webpack loader. Classically options was called query and was a string which could be appended to the name of the loader. Much like a query string but actually with greater powers:

module.exports = {
  ...
  module: {
    rules: [{
      test: /\.tsx?$/,
      loader: 'ts-loader?' + JSON.stringify({ transpileOnly: false })
    }]
  }
}

But it can also be a separately specified object that's supplied alongside a loader:

module.exports = {
  ...
  module: {
    rules: [{
      test: /\.tsx?$/,
      loader: 'ts-loader',
      options:  { transpileOnly: false }
    }]
  }
}

LoaderOptionsPlugin context

Some loaders need context information and read them from the configuration. This needs to be passed via loader options in the long-term. See loader documentation for relevant options.

To keep compatibility with old loaders, this information can be passed via plugin:

  plugins: [
+   new webpack.LoaderOptionsPlugin({
+     options: {
+       context: __dirname
+     }
+   })
  ]

debug

The debug option switched loaders to debug mode in webpack 1. This needs to be passed via loader options in long-term. See loader documentation for relevant options.

The debug mode for loaders will be removed in webpack 3 or later.

To keep compatibility with old loaders, loaders can be switched to debug mode via a plugin:

- debug: true,
  plugins: [
+   new webpack.LoaderOptionsPlugin({
+     debug: true
+   })
  ]

Code Splitting with ES2015

In webpack 1, you could use require.ensure() as a method to lazily-load chunks for your application:

require.ensure([], function(require) {
  var foo = require("./module");
});

The ES2015 Loader spec defines import() as method to load ES2015 Modules dynamically on runtime. webpack treats import() as a split-point and puts the requested module in a separate chunk. import() takes the module name as argument and returns a Promise.

function onClick() {
  import("./module").then(module => {
    return module.default;
  }).catch(err => {
    console.log("Chunk loading failed");
  });
}

Good news: Failure to load a chunk can now be handled because they are Promise based.

Dynamic expressions

It's possible to pass a partial expression to import(). This is handled similar to expressions in CommonJS (webpack creates a context with all possible files).

import() creates a separate chunk for each possible module.

function route(path, query) {
  return import(`./routes/${path}/route`)
    .then(route => new route.Route(query));
}
// This creates a separate chunk for each possible route

Mixing ES2015 with AMD and CommonJS

As for AMD and CommonJS you can freely mix all three module types (even within the same file). webpack behaves similar to babel and node-eps in this case:

// CommonJS consuming ES2015 Module
var book = require("./book");

book.currentPage;
book.readPage();
book.default === "This is a book";
// ES2015 Module consuming CommonJS
import fs from "fs"; // module.exports map to default
import { readFileSync } from "fs"; // named exports are read from returned object+

typeof fs.readFileSync === "function";
typeof readFileSync === "function";

It is important to note that you will want to tell Babel to not parse these module symbols so webpack can use them. You can do this by setting the following in your .babelrc or babel-loader options.

.babelrc

{
  "presets": [
    ["es2015", { "modules": false }]
  ]
}

Hints

No need to change something, but opportunities

Template strings

webpack now supports template strings in expressions. This means you can start using them in webpack constructs:

- require("./templates/" + name);
+ require(`./templates/${name}`);

Configuration Promise

webpack now supports returning a Promise from the configuration file. This allows to do async processing in you configuration file.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = function() {
  return fetchLangs().then(lang => ({
    entry: "...",
    // ...
    plugins: [
      new DefinePlugin({ LANGUAGE: lang })
    ]
  }));
};

Advanced loader matching

webpack now supports more things to match on for loaders.

module: {
  rules: [
    {
      resource: /filename/, // matches "/path/filename.js"
      resourceQuery: /^\?querystring$/, // matches "?querystring"
      issuer: /filename/, // matches "/path/something.js" if requested from "/path/filename.js"
    }
  ]
}

More CLI options

There are some new CLI options for you to use:

--define process.env.NODE_ENV="production" See DefinePlugin.

--display-depth displays the distance to the entry point for each module.

--display-used-exports display info about which exports are used in a module.

--display-max-modules sets the number for modules displayed in the output (defaults to 15).

-p also defines process.env.NODE_ENV to "production" now.

Loader changes

Changes only relevant for loader authors.

Cacheable

Loaders are now cacheable by default. Loaders must opt-out if they are not cacheable.

  // Cacheable loader
  module.exports = function(source) {
-   this.cacheable();
    return source;
  }
  // Not cacheable loader
  module.exports = function(source) {
+   this.cacheable(false);
    return source;
  }

Complex options

webpack v1 only supports JSON.stringify-able options for loaders.

webpack v2 now supports any JS object as loader options.

Before v2.2.1 (i.e. from v2.0.0 through v2.2.0), using complex options required using ident for the options object to allow its reference from other loaders. This was removed in v2.2.1 and thus current migrations do not require any use of the ident key.

{
  test: /\.ext/
  use: {
    loader: '...',
    options: {
-     ident: 'id',
      fn: () => require('./foo.js')
    }
  }
}

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